Reference and provenance data

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Semantic MediaWiki statement with untested claim or fact
Semantic MediaWiki statement containing a factual claim
Example implementation

Statements recorded with Semantic MediaWiki mostly contain untested claims which in general is being interpret as an "incomplete claim for which evidence is yet unavailable"1.

In some instances it is helpful to record provenance2 metadata to increase the understanding of a reader about the circumstances of a claim.

For example, the statement "Berlin has a population of 3 500 000" is untested in context of a missing reference or axiomatic declaration, yet in spite of lacking evidence the claim is expected to be true3 (under the open-world assumption).

Some users4 and for some situations, relying on untested claims can be challenging therefore SMW 2.5 introduced a new Reference5 type with which an untested claim can be transformed into a factual claim by recording provenance metadata678 (as to when, how, by whom a claim was made) and hereby allows to state tangible or convergent evidence1.

Semantic Cite vs. Reference type

A statement created by Semantic Cite (also known as citation resource) and that by the Reference type are fundamentally different in that, references (referring to the provenance metadata) are an extension of a value statement and inherently bound to a specific value assignment while Semantic Cite's resources are "loose" references that can be freely attached to any text or link without correlation to a specific claim or value annotation.

See also


  1. a b  Fact, Opinion, False Claim, or Untested Claim? describes as "Untested claim: Vague, ambiguous, or incomplete claim OR factual claim for which evidence is yet unavailable."
  2. ^  Provenance is understood as "... information about entities, activities, and people involved in producing a piece of data or thing, which can be used to form assessments about its quality, reliability or trustworthiness ..." according to
  3. ^  As a logical axiom "everything can be true unless proven otherwise", see The Open World Assumption
  4. ^
  5. ^
  6. ^
  7. ^  Sudha Ram, Jun Liu. "A New Perspective on Semantics of Data Provenance". (2009): 35--40.
  8. ^  Yogesh L Simmhan, Beth Plale, Dennis Gannon. "A Survey of Data Provenance in e-Science". ACM 34.3 (2005): 31--36. doi: 10.1145/1084805.1084812