Statements recorded with Semantic MediaWiki mostly contain untested claims which in general is being interpret as an "incomplete claim for which evidence is yet unavailable"1.
For example, the statement "Berlin has a population of 3 500 000" is untested in context of a missing reference or axiomatic declaration, yet in spite of lacking evidence the claim is expected to be
true2 (under the open-world assumption).
Some users3 and for some situations, relying on untested claims can be challenging therefore SMW 2.5 introduced a new Reference4 type with which an untested claim can be transformed into a factual claim by recording provenance metadata567 (as to when, how, by whom a claim was made) and hereby allows to state tangible or convergent evidence1.
Semantic Cite vs. Reference type
A statement created by Semantic Cite (also known as citation resource) and that by the Reference type are fundamentally different in that, references (referring to the provenance metadata) are an extension of a value statement and inherently bound to a specific value assignment while Semantic Cite's resources are "loose" references that can be freely attached to any text or link without correlation to a specific claim or value annotation.
- Fact, Opinion, False Claim, or Untested Claim? describes as "Untested claim: Vague, ambiguous, or incomplete claim OR factual claim for which evidence is yet unavailable."
- As a logical axiom "everything can be true unless proven otherwise", see The Open World Assumption
- Sudha Ram, Jun Liu. "A New Perspective on Semantics of Data Provenance". CEUR-WS.org (2009): 35--40.
- Yogesh L Simmhan, Beth Plale, Dennis Gannon. "A Survey of Data Provenance in e-Science". ACM 34.3 (2005): 31--36. doi: 10.1145/1084805.1084812